David., L., Vassena, E., & Bijleveld, E. (2023). The aversiveness of effort: A meta-analytic review and meta-analysis of the association between mental effort and negative affect. pdf


Bijleveld, E. (in press). The ebb and flow of cognitive fatigue. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. pdf

Bijleveld, E., van Breukelen, F.N., de Segovia Vicente, D., & Schutter, D. (2023). Mapping the dose–response relationship between monetary reward and cognitive performance. Motivation Science, 9(3), 205-215. pdf

Schepers, A.M., Schorrlepp, L., de Vries, J.D., de Kloe, T., van der Linden, D., & Bijleveld, E. (2023). Revisiting the link between the sustained attention to response task (SART) and daily-life cognitive failures. Consciousness and Cognition, 114, 103558. pdf


ten Broeke, P., Gardner, B., Beckers, D. G., Geurts, S. A., & Bijleveld, E. (2022). Why do people sit? A framework for targeted behavior change. Health Psychology Review. pdf

ten Broeke, P., van Bakel, B.M.A., Bakker, E.A., Beckers, D.G.J., Geurts, S.A.E., Thijssen, D.H.J., Eijsvogels, T.M.H., & Bijleveld, E. (2022). Sitting patterns in cardiovascular disease patients compared with healthy controls and impact of cardiac rehabilitation. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 32, 1639–1649. pdf

Dora, J., van Hooff, M. L., Geurts, S. A., Kompier, M. A., & Bijleveld, E. (2022). The effect of opportunity costs on mental fatigue in labor/leisure trade-offs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 151(3), 695-710. pdf

Benthem de Grave, R., Hasselman, F., & Bijleveld, E. (2022). From work stress to disease: A computational model. PLoS ONE, 17, e0263966. pdf

Kahmann, R., Ozuer, Y., Zedelius, C.M., & Bijleveld, E. (2022). Mind wandering increases linearly with text difficulty. Psychological Research, 86, 284–293. pdf

van der Wal, R.A.B., Bijleveld, E., van Herwaarden, A.E.; Bucx, M.J.L., Prins, J.B., & Scheffer, G.J. (2022). Chronic stress indicated by hair cortisol concentration in anaesthesiologists and its relationship to work experience and emotional intelligence. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 39(1), 26–32. pdf

van der Wal, R.A.B., Bijleveld, E., van Herwaarden, A.E.; Bucx, M.J.L., Prins, J.B., & Scheffer, G.J. (2022). Stress levels in anaesthesiologists: explaining the extremes. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 39(3), 294–295. pdf

van der Wal, R.A.B., Wallage, J., Scheffer, G.J., Prins, J.B., & Bijleveld, E. (2022). Personality in anaesthesiologists, a systematic review of the literature. European Journal of Anaesthesiology, 39(4), 378–387. pdf


Dora, J., van Hooff, M., Geurts, S.A., Kompier, M.A., & Bijleveld, E. (2021). Labor/leisure decisions in their natural context: The case of the smartphone. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 28, 676–685. pdf

Dora, J., van Hooff, M. L., Geurts, S. A., Kompier, M. A., & Bijleveld, E. (2021). Fatigue, boredom and objectively measured smartphone use at work. Royal Society Open Science, 8, 201915. pdf

Healthy Brain Study consortium, et al. (2021). Protocol of the Healthy Brain Study: An accessible resource for understanding the human brain and how it dynamically and individually operates in its bio-social context. PloS ONE, 16, e0260952. pdf


ten Broeke, P., Olthof, M., Beckers, D.G.J., Hopkins, N.D., Graves, L.E.F., Carter, S.E., Cochrane, M., Gavin, D., Morris, A.S., Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.S., Geurts, S.A.E., Thijssen, D.H.J., Bijleveld, E. (2020). Temporal dynamics of sitting behavior at work. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(26), 14883–14889. pdf

Rusz, D., Le Pelley, M.E., Kompier, M.A.J., Mait, L., & Bijleveld. E. (2020). Reward-driven distraction: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 146(10), 872–899. pdf

Schmitz, L., Bijleveld, E. & Veling, H. (2020). Cognitive labor shapes the desire for social and monetary compensation. Motivation and Emotion, 44, 797–809. pdf


Algermissen, J., Bijleveld, E., Jostmann, N.B., & Holland, R.W. (2019). Explore or reset? Pupil diameter transiently increases in self-chosen switches between cognitive labor and leisure in either direction. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 19, 1113–1128. pdf

Rusz, D., Bijleveld, E., & Kompier, M. (2019). Do reward-related distractors impair cognitive performance? Perhaps not. Collabra: Psychology, 5(1), 10. pdf


Bijleveld, E. (2018). The feeling of effort during mental activity. Consciousness and Cognition, 63, 218–227. pdf

Rusz, D., Bijleveld, E., & Kompier, M. A. (2018). Reward-associated distractors can harm cognitive performance. PLoS ONE, 13, e0205091. pdf

Bijleveld, E., & Knufinke, M. (2018). Exposure to bright light biases effort-based decisions. Behavioral Neuroscience, 132(3), 183–193. pdf

Stoeckart, P.F., Strick, M., Bijleveld, E., & Aarts, H. (2018). The implicit power motive predicts decisions in line with perceived instrumentality. Motivation and Emotion, 42, 309–320. pdf


van de Groep, I.H., de Haas, L.M., Schutte, I., & Bijleveld, E. (2017). Spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR) predicts poor performance in high-stakes situations. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 119, 50–57. pdf

Bijleveld, E., & Baalbergen, J. (2017). Prenatal exposure to testosterone (2D:4D) and social hierarchy together predict voice behavior in bankers. PLoS ONE, 12, e0180008. pdf

Stoeckart, P.F., Strick, M., Bijleveld, E., & Aarts, H. (2017). The implicit power motive predicts action selection. Psychological Research, 81, 560–570. pdf


Boere, J.J., Fellinger, L., Huizinga, D.J.H., Wong, S.F. & Bijleveld, E. (2016). Performance pressure and caffeine both affect cognitive performance, but likely through independent mechanisms. Brain and Cognition, 102, 26–32. pdf


Veling, H., & Bijleveld, E. (2015). When performance and risk taking are related: Working for rewards is related to risk taking when the value of rewards is presented briefly. Brain and Cognition, 101, 44–50. pdf


Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., Van der Stigchel, S., Aarts, H., Pas, P., & Vink, M. (2014). Distinct neural responses to conscious vs. unconscious monetary reward cues. Human Brain Mapping, 35(11), 5578–5586. pdf

Bijleveld, E., & Veling. H. (2014). Separating chokers from non-chokers: Predicting real-life tennis performance under pressure from behavioral tasks that tap into working memory functioning. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 36(4), 347–356. pdf

Pas, P., Custers, R., Bijleveld, E., & Vink, M. (2014). Effort responses to reward cues are related to striatal dopaminergic functioning. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 759-770. pdf

Zedelius, C.M., Veling, H., Custers, R., Bijleveld, E., Chiew, K.S., & Aarts, H. (2014). A new perspective on human reward research: How consciously and unconsciously perceived reward information influences performance. Cognitive, Affective, and Behaviorial Neuroscience, 14, 493–508. pdf

2013 and before

Vink, M., Pas, P., Bijleveld, E., Custers, R. & Gladwin, T. (2013). Ventral striatum is related to within-subject learning performance. Neuroscience, 250, 408–416. pdf

Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2012). Human reward pursuit: From rudimentary to higher-level functions. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21(3), 194–199. pdf

Bijleveld, E., Scheepers, D., & Ellemers, N. (2012). The cortisol response to anticipated intergroup interactions predicts self-reported prejudice. PLoS ONE, 7, e33681. pdf

Zedelius, C.M., Veling, H., Bijleveld, E., & Aarts, H. (2012). Promising high monetary rewards for future task performance increases intermediate task performance. PloS ONE, 7, e42547. pdf

Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2012). Adaptive reward pursuit: How effort requirements modulate unconscious reward responses and conscious reward decisions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 141(4), 728–742. pdf

Aarts, H., Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., Dogge, M., Deelder, M., Schutter, D., & van Haren, N.E.M. (2012). Positive priming and intentional binding: Eye blink rate predicts reward information effects on the sense of agency. Social Neuroscience, 7(1), 105–112. pdf

Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2011). Once the money is in sight: Distinctive effects of conscious and unconscious rewards on task performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(4), 865–869. pdf

Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2011). When favourites fail: Tournament trophies as reward cues in tennis finals. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(13), 1463–1470. pdf

Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2010). Unconscious reward cues increase invested effort, but do not change speed-accuracy tradeoffs. Cognition, 115(2), 330–335. pdf

Bijleveld, E., Custers, R., & Aarts, H. (2009). The unconscious eye opener: Pupil dilation reveals strategic recruitment of resources upon presentation of subliminal reward cues. Psychological Science, 20(11), 1313–1315. pdf

Edited volume

Bijleveld, E., & Aarts, H. (Eds.). (2014). The psychological science of money. New York: Springer.

Book chapters

Bijleveld, E., Schäfer, L, & Rusz, D. (2019). Psychology of money. In: D. Dunn, M. Appelbaum, N. Weidman (Eds.), Oxford Bibliographies. pdf

Rusz, D., Bijleveld, E., & Kompier, M. (2018). Striving for solid science: Preregistration and direct replication in experimental psychology. SAGE Research Methods Cases. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pdf

Bijleveld, E. (2018). Money. In: M.H. Bornstein (Ed.), The SAGE Encyclopedia of Lifespan Human Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pdf

Bijleveld, E., & Aarts, H. (2014). A psychological perspective on money. In E. Bijleveld and H. Aarts (Eds.), The psychological science of money (pp. 3-20). New York: Springer.

Book in Dutch

Verlaat, T., Bijleveld, E., Meeldijk, A., & Berkhout, P. (2021). Sancties voor burgers: Een bruikbaar instrument voor gedragsverandering? [Sanctions for citizens: A useful tool for behavioural change?]. The Hague: Boom. pdf